Conodont

Conodonts are extinct chordates resembling eels, classified in the class Conodonta. For many years, they were known only from tooth-like microfossils now called conodont elements, found in isolation. Knowledge about soft tissues remains relatively sparse to this day. The animals are also called Conodontophora (conodont bearers) to avoid ambiguity. The eleven known fossil imprints of conodont animals depict an eel-like creature with 15 or, more rarely, 19 elements forming a bilaterally symmetrical array in the head. This array constituted a feeding apparatus radically different from the jaws of modern animals. There are three forms of teeth, coniform cones, ramiform bars, and pectiniform platforms, which may have performed different roles. The organisms range from a centimeter or so[verification needed] to the giant Promissum, 40 cm in length.[1] It is now widely agreed that conodonts had large eyes, fins with fin rays, chevron-shaped muscles and a notochord. The entire class of Conodonts are postulated to have been wiped out by the TriassicЦJurassic extinction event, which occurred roughly 200 million years ago.[2] [edit]Ecology The "teeth" of some conodonts have been interpreted as filter-feeding apparatuses, filtering out plankton from the water and passing it down the throat.[citation needed] Others have been interpreted as a "grasping and crushing array".[1] The lateral position of the eyes makes a predatory role unlikely.[citation needed] The preserved musculature hints that some conodonts (Promissum at least) were efficient cruisers but incapable of bursts of speed.[1] [edit]Classification and phylogeny As of 2012 scientists classify the conodonts in the phylum Chordata on the basis of their fins with fin rays, chevron-shaped muscles and notochord.[3] Milsom and Rigby envisi

n them as vertebrates similar in appearance to modern hagfish and lampreys,[4] and phylogenetic analysis suggests that they are more derived than either of these groups.[5] This analysis, however, comes with one caveat: early forms of conodonts, the protoconodonts, appear to form a distinct clade from the later paraconodonts and euconodonts. It appears likely that the protoconodonts represent a stem group to the phylum containing chaetognath worms, indicating that they are not close relatives of true conodonts.[6] Moreover, some analyses do not regard Conodonts as either vertebrates or craniates, because they lack the main characteristics of these groups. For many years, conodonts were known only from enigmatic tooth-like microfossils, which occur commonly but not always in isolation, and were not associated with any other fossil. These phosphatic microfossils are now termed "conodont elements" to avoid confusion. They are widely used in biostratigraphy. Conodont elements are also used as paleothermometers, a proxy for thermal alteration in the host rock. This is because under higher temperatures the phosphate undergoes predictable and permanent color changes, measured with the conodont alteration index. This has made them useful for petroleum exploration where they are known, in rocks dating from the Cambrian to the Late Triassic. It was not until early 1980s that the conodont teeth were found in association with fossils of the host organism, in a konservat lagerstatte.[10] This is because most of the conodont animal was soft-bodied, thus everything but the teeth were not suited for preservation under normal circumstances. The conodont apparatus may comprise a number of discrete elements, including the spathognathiform, ozarkodiniform, trichonodelliform, neoprioniodiform, and other forms.